6 Factors of a Fiduciary Relationship

6 Factors of a Fiduciary Relationship

Six factors must exist to create an ad hoc fiduciary duty as per the Supreme Court of Canada in Elder Advocates of Alberta Society v. Alberta, [2011] 2 S.C.R. 261, at paras. 27 and 36. 6 Factors for Fiduciary Relationships: (1) the fiduciary has scope for… Read more

Executor Must Treat All Beneficiaries In Good Faith

Executor Must Treat All Beneficiaries In Good Faith

An executor is in a fiduciary relationship and must treat all beneficiaries fairly and in good faith. Brighter v. Brighter Estate (1998), 1998 CarswellOnt 3113 (Ont. Gen.Div.): The executor has no right to hold any portion of the distributable assets hostage in order to extort… Read more

Executors/Trustees Must Care For Estate Assets

Executors/Trustees Must Care For Estate Assets

The law is clear that a personal representative (executors, trustees, and administrators)  has a duty to care for the assets of the estate: Stanger v. Royal Trust Co., [1947] 1 W.W.R. 538, [1947] 2 D.L.R. 534 (Sask. C.A.). Personal representatives undertake their duties in furtherance… Read more

Trustees for Infants Versus Guardians

Trustees For Infants versus Guardians

Leniuk Estate 2016 BCSC 159 held that a guardian for an infant is not permitted to be appointed the trustee to receive and hold in trust on the infant’s behalf all of the property to which the child is entitled to receive in place of… Read more

Executor Personally Liable For Court Costs

Executor Personally Liable For Court Costs

Craven v Osdacz 2017 ONSC 4396 held an executor of an estate personally liable for costs totalling about $150,000 for reckless and unreasonable behavior that amounted to reprehensible for opposing a plaintiff’s court action for no valid reason other than to frustrate and delay the… Read more

Trustee Cannot Be in Conflict With Duty

Trustee Cannot Be in Conflict With Duty

Equity will not allow a person who is in a position of trust to carry out a transaction where there is a conflict between his or her duty and his or her interest. It is a rule of universal application that no trustee shall be… Read more

Obligations of a Power of Attorney

Obligations of a Power of Attorney

The Manitoba Supreme Court in Krawchuk v Krawchuk 2017 MBQB 47 outlined the legal obligations  of a power of attorney. Manitoba’s laws for powers of attorneys are essentially the same as for British Columbia. The Court stated inter alia as follows: 18      The applicable law with… Read more

Use of Multiple Wills Approved

Use of Multiple Wills Approved

In re: Berkner Estate 2017 BCSC 619 the Court approved the use  of Multiple Wills in estate planning.  The applicant submits that a person is entitled to have more than one valid will. As an example, multiple wills may be used when a will maker… Read more

Gratuitous Agency

Gratuitous Agency

Agency can simply be defined as a person authorized by another to act for him or her with entrusted business, and the agent represents that the agent is acting for another under the contract of the relation of agency. The  case of Siemens v Howard… Read more

Executors Entitled To Indemnification For Fees and Expenses

Executors Entitled To Indemnification For Fees and Expenses

Re Collett Estate 2017 BCSC 473  confirmed the well settled law that executors at entitled to  indemnification for properly incurred fees and expenses in carrying out their administration of an estate. Jackson et al v. King et al, 2003 BCSC 328 at para. 12: As Executors,… Read more

Trustee Fee For Care and Management of Estate Assets

Trustee Fee For Care and Management of Estate Assets

Re Pedlar 1982 BCJ 1553 deal with the criteria for an estate trustee fee for the care and management of estate assets not to exceed .4% of the average market value of the estate assets. It was recently followed in Collett Estate 2017 BCSC 473… Read more

Executor Trustee Removed For Delay

Executor Trustee Removed For Delay

Re Collett Estate 2017 BCSC 473 is the most recent of a judicial trend to remove an executor trustee for delay in the distribution and finalization of an estate. In Collett the deceased died in 2008 and was removed as a result of the inordinate delay in… Read more

Passing Over an Executor

Passing Over an Executor

Passing over an executor utilizes essentially the same legal criteria as removing an executor except it occurs before the named executor starts to act in the representative capacity. Re Thommasson Estate 2011 BCSC 481 removed a named  executor who was not a beneficiary but his siblings… Read more

Statute Barred Debt to Estate Deducted From Beneficiary

Statute Barred Debt to Estate Deducted From Beneficiary

Re Johnston Estate 2017 BCSC 272 upheld the rule in Cherry v. Boultbee  which provides that where a legatee of a share of the residue is a debtor of the estate, he or she is not entitled to receive his or her legacy without bringing… Read more

Relationship Between Parent and Child Is Fiduciary

Relationship Between Parent and Child Is Fiduciary

A (LS) v A. ( WH) Estate 2014 BCSC  1910  (Antrobus v Antrobus) discusses that the relationship of parent and child is fiduciary in nature, and that parents have an obligation to care for, protect and rear their children . This line of authority was also… Read more